Use their knowledge of sound-symbol relationships and phonological patterns (e.g. consonant clusters and vowel phonemes) to help work out correct spellings, as appropriate for the needs of the learner
(i) Understand that English is not always spelt as it sounds, but knowledge of the sound-symbol associations can still be useful in spelling
(ii) Develop understanding of common letter patterns, including blends, vowel digraphs and word endings in English spelling, and know that these recur
(iii) Be aware that the -ed past simple ending (washed, wanted) and the plural ending -s (boys, cats) may be pronounced differently but have the same spelling
(iv) Develop the ability to discriminate between sounds, and understand that it is necessary to hear differences between sounds in order to link a sound with its symbol
(v) Understand that having a knowledge of some basic spelling rules can be useful
(vi) Understand that words are split into syllables and that knowing how many syllables a word has can help spelling.