ESOL Ww/E2.1b Use knowledge of sound–symbol relationships & phonological patterns when spelling
ESOL > Writing > Word Focus (Spelling and Handwriting) > Spelling > E2.1b use their knowledge of sound–symbol relationships and phonological patterns (e.g. consonant clusters and vowel phonemes) to help work out correct spellings, as appropriate for the needs of the learner
(i) understand that English is not always spelt as it sounds but that knowledge of the sound–symbol associations can be useful in spelling
(ii) develop understanding of common letter patterns, including blends, vowel digraphs and word endings in English spelling, and know that these recur
(iii) develop understanding of common units of meaning (morphemes) and how they can be used to aid spelling, e.g. –ed endings (washed, wanted, carried); –s for plurals (boys, cats, houses); prefix un– to indicate opposite
(iv) be aware that the –ed past simple ending (washed, wanted) and the plural ending –s (boys, cats) may be pronounced differently but have the same spelling
(v) understand that for some learners knowledge of basic spelling rules can be useful
(vi) understand that words are split into syllables and that listening for the number of syllables can help spelling
Example of application and level
- Write addresses in an address book,
e.g.: Amina Lotfi
5 Station Road, Hove, West Sussex
38 Junction Way, Leigh, Essex
- Write an ad for display in a newsagents, e.g.:
School Uniform, age 12
1 white shirt
1 black skirt
2 black blazers
Used clothes, old toys, books
for charity jumble sale
- Learners suggest vocabulary for a particular context (based on a variety of stimulus photos, pictures, video), which is then noted on the board. Learners are asked for synonyms and different ways of expressing the same idea/action/object.
- Using vocabulary-building materials (labelled pictures, definition-matching exercises, crosswords), learners complete gap-fill texts, using new vocabulary specific to the context.
- Learners identify words and contexts for which accuracy in spelling is important, and compare with the need for accuracy in spelling their languages.
- Learners discuss the differences between spelling in English and their own language, and how knowledge of sound–symbol association, combined with knowledge of patterns can help with spelling.
- Learners identify common patterns (e.g. –ing and blends) and practise spelling with gap-fill exercises, dictation, language experience work.
- Learners build up word lists of groups of words with common letter patterns and/or sound–symbol associations.
- Learners read texts and underline common units of meaning (e.g. –ed endings), then practise spelling through gap-fill exercises, dictation work.
See also ESOL Lr/E.2.2d (Listen for phonological detail)
Source: Adult ESOL Core Curriculum (DfES, 2001) (p162-163)