Extract the main points and ideas, and predict words from context.
(i) Understand that some parts of texts may be more important to overall meaning than others
(ii) Develop awareness that the first sentence in a paragraph, often referred to as the topic sentence, often introduces the main point or establishes a new idea
(iii) Recognise key lexis, collocations, fixed and semi-fixed expressions, and use this to extract the main points
Example: The following extract from a travel information leaflet uses key lexis, collocations (such as ‘lost property') and phrases that are typically found in travel information - the phrases have become semi-fixed expressions:
Smoking - Smoking is not allowed on any stations, trains or buses.
CCTV - All stations, trains and buses are now equipped with CCTV for your comfort and safety.
Lost property - Enquiries concerning lost property should be made to the relevant number below…
(iv) Know that authors do not always state their opinions overtly, but that their opinions can sometimes be inferred, especially by considering choice of lexis
Example: Read a newspaper headline and identify information that is not overtly stated, e.g. the author's opinion in newspaper headlines: Refugees are flooding into Dover.
Teenage mothers jump the housing queue.
Five years' research went down the drain.
(v) Recognise use of modal verbs to express opinion and judgement.
Example: I wouldn't say that…
(vi) Develop awareness of how clichés and metaphorical language express opinion and ideas